Development of Sufism in the 3rd and 4th centuries

From the Zuhud way of life in 1st and 2nd century. In the 3rd century, Sufism began to study Sufism which has two tendencies. First, the study of Sufism which tends to be moral based on the Qu'ran and Sunnah. Second, the study of Sufism which is philosophical in nature and mixed with studies of metaphysical philosophy.

   In that century it is known to have achieved establishment. The Sufis of that period represented the golden age of Sufism in their ranks. One of the signs of the founding of Sufism in the 3rd and 4th centuries is the existence or emergence of the Sufi order in its earliest form. The tarekat that emerged at that time was the Tasfuriyah Order which was attributed to Abu Yazid Al-Bustami, the Hallajiyah Order dedicated to Mansur Al-Hallaj and others.

   For mystical works at that time, the books that can still be found today are:
1. Al-Luma, written by Abu Nasr As-Sarraj At-Tusi (W.378 H), this book is quite large and fundamental in the study of Sufism.

2. Qut Al-Qutub, by Abu Talib Al-Makki (W. 386 H), He proved the validity of doctrine and practice in his book.

3. At - Ta'aruf Lil Mazhabi Ahl At - Tasawwuf, by Abu Bakar Al - Kalabazi.

Sufism figures in that period:

1. Abu Yazid Al - Bustami

   His full name is Abu Yazid bin Isa ibn Syurusan Al - Bustami. Born around 200 H / 814 AD in Bustam, northeastern part of Persia. And in Bustam, he died in 261 H / 875 AD

   Abu Yazid was a Sufi who carried different teachings from previous figures. The teachings he brought were opposed by many scholars of fiqh and kalam, which was the reason he was in and out of prison. In the history of the development of Sufism, Abu Yazid was the bearer of Al-Fana and Al-Baqo understanding as well as the originator of the Al-Ittihad ideology.

2. Al - Hallaj

   His full name is Abu Al - Muqis Al - Husain bin Mansur Al - Hallaj. (244-309 H). He was a controversial figure in the history of Sufism and eventually found his death on the gallows.

   The theory of Sufism developed by Al - Hallaj includes three main points, namely: Hulul, Haqiqah Muhammadiyah and Wahdah Al - Adyan.

A. Hulul

   Namely the assumption that God chose certain human bodies to be placed in it. After the human qualities that were in his body were eliminated.

b. Haqiqah Muhammadiyah or Nur Muhammad

   The view that the Prophet Muhammad SAW. has two forms. The first form is qodim and azali.

c. Wahdah Al - Adyan

   All religions are basically one. Because all of them have the same goal, namely acknowledging and worshiping Allah SWT. Ruler of the world, god of all religions. The names of various religions are basically the same.



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