Islamic Theological Framework


 

1.     The Khawarij

   Khawarij was a follower of the caliph Ali bin Abi Talib who turned away because he did not agree with Ali's attitude in accepting arbitration as a way of resolving the dispute over the caliphate with Muawiyah bin Abi Sofyan. Khawarij comes from the word kharaja which means to come out. That name was given to them because they left the ranks of Ali ibn Abi Talib. However, there is an opinion that says that the naming is based on verse 100 of Surat An - Nisa. Where it says: "Get out of the house and run to Allah and His Messenger.". Therefore, Khawarij saw that they were people who left their homeland from their homeland to serve Allah and His Messenger.

   Apart from Khawarij, they also call themselves Shurahs, which comes from the word Yasyri (to sell). As mentioned in verse 207 of Surat Al-Baqarah: "There are people who sell themselves to get the pleasure of Allah." They think that they are people who are willing to sacrifice to Allah SWT. Another name is Haruriah, from the word Harura, a village near the city of Kufa, in Iraq. In this place they numbered twelve thousand people, separated from the Caliph Ali and made Abdullah Ibn Wahb Al-Rasidi as the Imam replacing Caliph Ali. In the battle against the Caliph they suffered a terrible defeat, but in the end a Khariji named Abd Al-Rahman Ibn Muljam was able to kill Ali.
Even though the Khawarij suffered defeat, they reorganized their ranks and continued their resistance to official Islamic rule during the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. They thought that power at that time had deviated from true Islam and had to be resisted and contested.

In matters of power, the caliph or government of Abu Bakr and Umar bin Khattab as a whole they accept. However, they considered Uthman to have deviated from the seventh year of his caliphate, and Ali was also considered to have deviated after the arbitration process. Since then Uthman and Ali became infidels to them, as did Muawiyah, Amr bin Ash and Abu Musa Al-Asyari and all those they thought had violated the teachings of Islam.

From here the Khawarij entered into the question of kufr. Who do they call kafir or leaving Islam and also who do they call believers or not leaving Islam? All of these views were divided, because the Khawarij were divided into several groups.

1. Al - Muhakkimah

   The original khawarij group, for them Ali, Muawiyah and all those who took part in the arbitration were guilty and infidels. Furthermore, they expanded the meaning of kafir law so that even those who committed mortal sins were considered kafirs.

2. Al - Azariqah

   The group that can form a new rank after Al-Muhakkimah is destroyed. The name of this group itself is taken from its leader, namely Nafi Ibn Al - Azraq. This sect has a more radical attitude than Al - Muhakkimah. They no longer use the term kafir, but the term musyrik or musyrik. And in Islam, shirk or polytheism is the biggest sin, bigger than kufr.

3. Al - Najdat

   Najdah Ibn Amir Al - Hanafi from Yamamah and his followers originally wanted to join the Al-Azariqoh group. However, in this group divisions emerged. In contrast to the two groups, the Al-Najdah group argues that people who have grave sins who become infidels and are forever in hell are Muslims who do not agree with their group. However, his followers who commit mortal sins will be truly tormented but not in hell and then go to heaven.  

      4. Al - Ajaridah

   They are followers of Abdul Karim bin Ajrad. Al-Ajaridah is gentler. According to them, hijrah is not an obligation as taught by Nafi and Najdah. But only virtue. Al - Ajaridah adheres to puritanism, they do not recognize Yusuf's letter as part of the Koran, because in the letter there is a love story. They think that there is no love story in scripture.

5. Al - Sufriah

   The leader of this group is Ziad Ibn Al - Asfar. In their understanding they are close to the Al - Azariqah group. They argue, not all people who commit grave sins are idolaters. Some people divide the grave sins into two parts. Sin that has sanctions in the world such as murder and adultery. And sins that are not sanctioned in this world are like abandoning prayer and fasting. The first part is not called kafir, what is called kafir is only the second part, namely the great sin that has no sanctions in the world.

6. Al - Ibadah

   This group is the most moderate of all the Khawarij groups. His name is taken from Abdullah bin Ibad. The understanding of moderate people like Muslims who commit mortal sins is muwahhid, but not believers. In other words, those who commit mortal sins are not disbelievers according to this class.


 

2.     The Murjiah

   Like the Khawarij, Murjiah also arose because of political problems. Murjiah is a person who chooses neutrality between political or government matters. Especially neutral from the Khawarij who opposed power because they were considered deviating from the fanatical Shia with Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib.

   The grave sin problem caused by the Khawarij imposes kafir laws on the person who commits that sin. Meanwhile, according to Murjiah, they still have faith, as for the grave sins they have committed, the settlement is postponed on the day of reckoning. The argument they put forward in this case is that Muslims who have committed mortal sins continue to admit that there is no god but Allah and Prophet Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.

   In general, Murjiah is divided into two groups, moderate and extreme groups. Moderates argue that the perpetrators of mortal sins are not infidels and are impermanent in hell. Meanwhile, the extreme group argues that verbal kufr does not become kafir, because faith and kufr are located in the heart. Even according to this extreme Murjiah, it is not an infidel who worships idols, practices Judaism or Christianity, if he has faith in his heart, then when he dies, that person dies with perfect faith.

 

3. Qadariah and Jabariah

   God is the creator of the universe, including man himself. God is almighty and has absolute will. From this the question arises, the extent to which humans, as God's creation, depend on God's absolute will and power in determining the course of their life?

   Responding to this question, the Qadariahs argue that humans have freedom and freedom in determining their life path. According to Qadariah understanding, humans have their own freedom and power to carry out their actions. The name Qadariah itself is taken from the understanding that humans have qudrah or the power to carry out their will, and not because they are forced into God's qadar. In English terms this meaning is called free will.

   Jabariah argued otherwise. Humans do not have the freedom to determine their desires and actions. Humans in this sense are bound by God's absolute will in their actions. So the name Jabariah comes from the word Jabara which means strength. In English terms this is called fatalism or predestination. Human actions are predetermined by the qada and qadar of God.

 

4. Mu'tazilah

   Mu'tazilah is a group that brings deeper theological problems and is philosophical in nature. In their discussion, they used more reasoning so that they got the name "Islamic Rationalist".

   Various analyzes have been carried out regarding the Mutazilah naming. These descriptions are often referred to as the central books of kalam knowledge regarding the events that occurred between Wasil bin Ata and his friends Amr bin Ubaid and Hasan Al-Basri, in Basrah. Wasil always follows Hasan Basri's lessons at the Basrah mosque. One day a man came to ask his opinion about the perpetrator of a grave sin. As is well known, Khawarij looked at the disbelievers and Murjiah looked at those who believed. While Hasan Basri was still thinking, Wasil expressed his own opinion by saying, “In my opinion, people who have mortal sins are not believers or infidels but take a position among them, not believers and not kafirs. . "Then he stood up and distance himself from Hasan Basri and took another place in the mosque. Upon this incident Hasan Basri said, "Wasil keep it away from us (I'tazala anna)". So they are called Mu'tazilah.

   Wasil's first teaching was to understand the manzilah bainal manzilatain. The position between two positions in the sense of the middle position. People who commit mortal sins are not kafir or believers, but fasiq, the middle position between believers and unbelievers.

   The second teaching is understanding qodariah recommended by Ma'bad and Ghailan. Oh God, said Wasil wisely and fairly. He cannot do evil and wrongdoing. There is no way God wants people to break His commands. So, it is man who wills and manifests his actions.

   The third Wasil teaching is the elimination of divine characteristics in the sense that it is called divine nature, which is not actually a characteristic that has a separate form, outside of matter. God, but nature is the essence of God. According to Al - Syahrastani, the teachings that Wasil brought were immature, but were perfected by his followers, after they studied Greek philosophy. The idea of ​​negating this character seems to have come from Yahm, according to Al-Syahrastani who argues that the traits that exist in humans cannot be given to God, because it leads to anthropomorphism, which is called in the Arabic term Al-Tajassum. or al-Tasybih. However, unlike Wasil, Jahm still gave the nature of power, deeds and creation to God. As a consequence of his understanding of Jabariah.

 

5. Expert Sunnah and Jamaah

   The terms Pakar Sunnah and Jamaah emerged as a reaction to the Mutazila view. During the time of the Caliph Al - Makmun Mutazilah, it was made an official school adopted by the state. So far there have also been mihnahs or inquisitions. Which is a dark history of Muslims, and dirty for Mutazilah.

   What is meant by Sunnah and Jamaah experts in the field of Islamic theology are the Ashariyah and Maturidiyah people. Abu Hasan Asyari, was born in Basrah in 873 AD and died in Baghdad in 935 AD Initially he was a student of Al-Jubbai, and one of the most prominent in the Mutazilah class.

   Al-Asyari, despite having embraced Mutazilah for decades, finally left, because what he is usually called, who comes from Subkhi and Ibn Asakir, is that one night Al-Ashari had a dream, in that dream Prophet Muhammad SAW. Told him that the scholars of the hadith were right, and that the Mutazilah school was wrong.

   As for Maturidiyah, from Abu Mansur Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Mahmud Al - Maturidi was born in Samarkand, in the second half of the ninth century AD and died in 944 AD He was a follower of Abu Hanifah and his theological understanding has many similarities with Abu Hanifah.

  As a follower of Abu Hanifah who uses a lot of reason from his religious perspective. Al - Maturidi also used many reasons in his theological system. In the matter of God's attributes, there are similarities between Maturidi and Asyari. According to Maturidi, God knows not in substance but from knowledge. However, in the matter of human actions, Al - Maturidi agrees with Mutazilah, that it is actually humans who make their actions happen. So he has Qadariah understanding, not Jabariah or Asyari clan understanding.

   Similar to Al-Asyari, Al-Maturidi rejected the Mu'tazilah's teachings about al - salah wa al - aslah. Also about the Koran as a creature. He has the same opinion as Ashari, that the Koran is qadim.

   Regarding the matter of Al-Maturidi's grave sins, according to Al-Asyari, namely: people who have mortal sins continue to believe, and the matter of mortal sins will be determined by Allah in the hereafter. He also refused to understand Mutazilis' middle position. However, in the matter of Al - Wa'd wa Al - Wa'id, Al - Maturidi agrees with Mutazilah. God's promises and threats must not be broken in the future.

   One of the most important followers of Al - Maturidi is Abu Al - Yusr Muhammad Al - Bazdawi (421 - 493 H). Grandma Al - Bazdawi was a student of Al - Maturidi, and Al - Bazdawi received Maturidi teachings from his parents.

   Like Al - Baqillani and Al - Juwaini, Al - Bazdawi did not always agree with Al - Maturidi. The difference in understanding can be said that in the Maturidiyah sect there are two groups, namely the Samarkand group, namely the followers of Al-Maturidi itself. And the Bukhara group, namely the followers of Al-Bazdawi, if the Samarkand group has a closer understanding of Mutazilah, then the Bukhara group has an opinion that is closer to that of Al-Asyari.

   The Maturidiyah sect, as previously explained, is a theology that is widely held by Muslims who use the Hanafi school of thought. Because what we know is that Abu Mansur Al-Maturidi was a follower of Imam Hanafi, so his thoughts are in line with him.

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